Close-up or macro Lens
- A macro lens used in macro or "close-up" photography (not to be confused with the compositional term close up) is any lens that produces an image on the focal plane (i.e., film or a digital sensor) that is one quarter of life size (1:4)to the same size (1:1) as the subject being imaged. There is no official standard to define a macro lens, usually a prime lens, but a 1:1 ratio is, typically, considered "true" macro. Magnification from life size to larger is called "Micro" photography (2:1, 3:1 etc.). This configuration is generally used to image close-up very small subjects. A macro lens may be of any focal length, the actual focus length being determined by its practical use, considering magnification, the required ratio, access to the subject, and illumination considerations. It can be a special lens corrected optically for close up work or it can be any lens modified (with adapters or spacers, which are also known as "extension tubes".) to bring the focal plane "forward" for very close photography. Depending on the camera to subject distance and aperture, the depth-of-field can be very narrow, limiting the linear depth of the area that will be in focus. Lenses are usually stopped down to give a greater depth-of-field.
Ref - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camera_lens